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MariaDB SQL- Tuning

After setting up mariadb and tweaking its basic configuration, one may want to check the structures and sql- queries for performance.

It is not really well documented, how mariadb will output what exactly is the cause for bad performance. In phpMyAdmin there is a tab in the Server-Menu named Status where there is an Advisor, which may give hints for what may be wrong. But after that, there is no way to find the Statements, causing the trouble. Furtheron, many statements beeing problematik may not cause Errors or very slow behaviour, but are doing the „wrong things“ really fast. Having bad Statements that are executing fast is not a good thing, as strange may happen (e.g. deadlocking when the size of data is growing). So one should have a look at bad statements.

For all those things, one can use the slow log - even if the name appears to only be useful for long running transcations.

There are three types of bad statement, that can be analysed with the slow log, each described in a seperate section. They cannot be analysed all in all without having big impact to the load of the server.

Todos here: General logging - paths and setup logrotate

Keep in mind, that changes are lost each restart of mariadb if not set in configuration.


# This logname can be set in /etc/my.cnf
# by setting the variable "log-error"
# in the [mysqld] section as follows:
# [mysqld]
# log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log
# If the root user has a password you have to create a
# /root/.my.cnf configuration file with the following
# content:
# [mysqladmin]
# password = <secret>
# user= root
# where "<secret>" is the password.
# ATTENTION: This /root/.my.cnf should be readable ONLY
# for root !
/var/log/mysql/*.log {
# create 600 mysql mysql
su mysql mysql
rotate 3
# just if mariadbd is really running
if test -x /usr/bin/mysqladmin && \
/usr/bin/mysqladmin -pMYSECRETPASSWORD ping &>/dev/null
/usr/bin/mysqladmin -pMYSECRETPASSWORD --local flush-error-log \
flush-engine-log flush-general-log flush-slow-log
if test $ret -ne 0
echo "/etc/logrotate.d/mariadb failed, probably because">&2
echo "the root acount is protected by password.">&2
echo "See comments in /etc/logrotate.d/mariadb on how to fix this">&2
exit $ret

Method 1: Slow Queries

This is ordinary. TODO: Explain long_query value…

Method 2: Queries causing Disk- Access

This is the real fun. There may be queries, that are executed fast, but are causing temporary files written to disk each execution. The programmer itself has no influence to this behaviour, as mariadb is doing it internally.

In the Advicsor you can find: „Many temporary tables are being written to disk instead of being kept in memory.“

Analyse it with those settings in /etc/my.cnf:


As you can see, there is a trick: by setting long-query-time to 0, every statement will be logged AND explained. Be cautious to alway apply a filter to that logging, as otherwise ALL statements would be analysed.

Method 3: Queries having no index

For troubleshooting queries without an index, you can also use:


Todo: explain more

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  • content/mariadb_tuning.txt
  • Zuletzt geändert: 2022/12/25 22:32
  • von Daniel