Diese Version (2024/06/04 14:44) wurde bestätigt durch Daniel.Die zuvor bestätigte Version (2024/06/04 14:43) ist verfügbar.Diff

Docker (rootless) + Portainer

Docker is a powerful solution for setting up Services. This short Introducion will give you hints how to setup Docker in a good way in userspace, so no root-access is needed for Docker.

Currently i am Experimenting on that topic, so maybe this documentation will be ready to use, maybe not.

Docker itself is nice, but it will run as root per default, which is a no-go at all. This will setup Docker in rootless- mode on OpenSuSE (currently Leap 15.5).

Mind, that at the time writing, overlay2 is the way to go as storage driver in docker, but it only supports xfs as backing filesystems (with d_type=true which means ftype=1 ).

I personally dislike xfs, especially while its not rubust and won't shrink. I use it anyway, because of its srong advise to do so - with kernel 5.19+ it should be possible to get overlay2 working on btrfs, but still there are thinks that may not work even with that kernel.

So make sure, that the Home-Directory of you docker user is on XFS. The ftype is already ok on SuSE 15.5, check output of xfs_info <volumename>.

Warning: you may have umask set your way - i prefer 007 as writte before. But if you change umask and permissions be very cautious, as docker uses userid- mapping and may change the permissions and ownersets of files in its directory to the subuserid. That may change the ownership in a way, that even the docker user on the host cannot access the Files, which is OK !

STRONG WARNING: Don't change permissions or ownership of docker- directories on the Host directly as this will chage them in the container an break your Services !!!

The only way to manage Volume- File- Permissions is to bash inside the running container itself and to change them there!

I had really a lot of troubles with the package Docker-Rootless in the AddOn- Repository: https://download.opensuse.org/repositories/Virtualization:/containers/${releasever}/ while they are not installing docker the same way, that docker would do. For example they will not be installed in User-Subspace only, but will use systems Docker executables installed in global paths. This is a problem when using btrfs - as btrfs is not fully compatible with docker. So i won't use this any more.

So i disabled the following packages and locked them to never install:

  • docker
  • docker-compose
  • containerd

Check out beneath for install the docker way.

Create a new group called docker and a new user called docker. Make the user have the default group docker.

Attention: The Home Directory should be on a volume having XFS as btrfs or others are not fully supported right now (20.04.2024 - patches in new Kernel 5.19 are incoming, but this Kernel is not released until now and still there are some problems open in developement there).

OpenSuSE Leap 15.5 does not have cGroups v2 enabled, which are needed by docker.

You may see a warning (later) when running docker info:

WARNING: Running in rootless-mode without cgroups. To enable cgroups in rootless-mode, you need to boot the system in cgroup v2 mode.

According to this documentation https://rootlesscontaine.rs/getting-started/common/cgroup2/ it needs to be enabled by appending the yast/bootloader command line with:


and also the delegation for the user of cpu is needed:

$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/user@.service.d
$ cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/user@.service.d/delegate.conf
Delegate=cpu cpuset io memory pids
$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload

after this, reboot and check if /sys/fs/cgroup/cgroup.controllers is present

After installing docker (see beneath), check if docker info says:

Cgroup Driver: systemd
Cgroup Version: 2

Than, its fine.

Warning: You CANNOT sudo to the user and install docker, while logon via pam is needed, which is not when you sudo. You need to ssh into your machine, or yust logon in a usual way:

If you login in the system using either of
- graphical session
- login on terminal (username and password)
- ssh
then the PAM machinery will call pam_systemd, and this will setup all needed hooks to use systemctl;
if you switch user using sudo or su, this will not happen.

I chose to ssh into my machine directly, than check your umask to be secure and install docker like this:

# ~> ssh localhost -l docker
Have a lot of fun...

docker@pcserver2023:~> umask

docker@pcserver2023:~> curl -fsSL https://get.docker.com/rootless | FORCE_ROOTLESS_INSTALL=1 sh
# Installing stable version 25.0.2
# Executing docker rootless install script, commit: 3b2a83b
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100 68.2M  100 68.2M    0     0  10.0M      0  0:00:06  0:00:06 --:--:-- 10.3M
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100 19.7M  100 19.7M    0     0   9.7M      0  0:00:02  0:00:02 --:--:--  9.7M
+ PATH=/home/docker/bin:/home/docker/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
+ /home/docker/bin/dockerd-rootless-setuptool.sh install --force
[INFO] Creating /home/docker/.config/systemd/user/docker.service
[INFO] starting systemd service docker.service
+ systemctl --user start docker.service
+ sleep 3
+ systemctl --user --no-pager --full status docker.service
● docker.service - Docker Application Container Engine (Rootless)
     Loaded: loaded (/home/docker/.config/systemd/user/docker.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
     Active: active (running) since Sat 2024-04-20 15:25:04 CEST; 3s ago
       Docs: https://docs.docker.com/go/rootless/
   Main PID: 3270 (rootlesskit)
      Tasks: 49
     Memory: 60.3M
        CPU: 224ms
     CGroup: /user.slice/user-1001.slice/user@1001.service/app.slice/docker.service
             ├─ 3270 rootlesskit --state-dir=/run/user/1001/dockerd-rootless --net=vpnkit --mtu=1500 --slirp4netns-sandbox=auto --slirp4netns-seccomp=auto --disable-host-loopback --port-driver=builtin --copy-up=/etc --copy-up=/run --propagation=rslave /home/docker/bin/dockerd-rootless.sh
             ├─ 3277 /proc/self/exe --state-dir=/run/user/1001/dockerd-rootless --net=vpnkit --mtu=1500 --slirp4netns-sandbox=auto --slirp4netns-seccomp=auto --disable-host-loopback --port-driver=builtin --copy-up=/etc --copy-up=/run --propagation=rslave /home/docker/bin/dockerd-rootless.sh
             ├─ 3290 vpnkit --ethernet /run/user/1001/dockerd-rootless/vpnkit-ethernet.sock --mtu 1500 --host-ip
             ├─ 3306 dockerd
             └─ 3327 containerd --config /run/user/1001/docker/containerd/containerd.toml
+ DOCKER_HOST=unix:///run/user/1001/docker.sock
+ /home/docker/bin/docker version
 Version:           25.0.2
 API version:       1.44
 Go version:        go1.21.6
 Git commit:        29cf629
 Built:             Thu Feb  1 00:22:06 2024
 OS/Arch:           linux/amd64
 Context:           default

Server: Docker Engine - Community
  Version:          25.0.2
  API version:      1.44 (minimum version 1.24)
  Go version:       go1.21.6
  Git commit:       fce6e0c
  Built:            Thu Feb  1 00:23:45 2024
  OS/Arch:          linux/amd64
  Experimental:     false
  Version:          v1.7.13
  GitCommit:        7c3aca7a610df76212171d200ca3811ff6096eb8
  Version:          1.1.12
  GitCommit:        v1.1.12-0-g51d5e94
  Version:          0.19.0
  GitCommit:        de40ad0
  Version:          2.0.0
  ApiVersion:       1.1.1
  NetworkDriver:    vpnkit
  PortDriver:       builtin
  StateDir:         /run/user/1001/dockerd-rootless
  Version:          7f0eff0dd99b576c5474de53b4454a157c642834
+ systemctl --user enable docker.service
Created symlink /home/docker/.config/systemd/user/default.target.wants/docker.service → /home/docker/.config/systemd/user/docker.service.
[INFO] Installed docker.service successfully.
[INFO] To control docker.service, run: `systemctl --user (start|stop|restart) docker.service`
[INFO] To run docker.service on system startup, run: `sudo loginctl enable-linger docker`

[INFO] Creating CLI context "rootless"
Successfully created context "rootless"
[INFO] Using CLI context "rootless"
Current context is now "rootless"

[INFO] Make sure the following environment variable(s) are set (or add them to ~/.bashrc):
export PATH=/home/docker/bin:$PATH

[INFO] Some applications may require the following environment variable too:
export DOCKER_HOST=unix:///run/user/1001/docker.sock

So, this looks very nice. Important: Do what the Installation says with the file ~/.bashrc

Log out of docker user if you are still in from install. Then, log back in to apply the bashrc- settings.

Ceck the Environement to have the settings:

docker@pcserver2023:~> Abgemeldet
Connection to localhost closed.
obel1x@pcserver2023:~> ssh localhost -l docker
Last login: Sat Apr 20 15:18:56 2024 from ::1
Have a lot of fun...
docker@pcserver2023:~> echo $DOCKER_HOST

Now check docker info:

docker@pcserver2023:~> docker info
 Version:    25.0.2
 Context:    default
 Debug Mode: false

 Containers: 0
  Running: 0
  Paused: 0
  Stopped: 0
 Images: 0
 Server Version: 25.0.2
 Storage Driver: overlay2
  Backing Filesystem: xfs
  Supports d_type: true
  Using metacopy: false
  Native Overlay Diff: false
  userxattr: true
 Logging Driver: json-file
 Cgroup Driver: systemd
 Cgroup Version: 2
  Volume: local
  Network: bridge host ipvlan macvlan null overlay
  Log: awslogs fluentd gcplogs gelf journald json-file local splunk syslog
 Swarm: inactive
 Runtimes: io.containerd.runc.v2 runc
 Default Runtime: runc
 Init Binary: docker-init
 containerd version: 7c3aca7a610df76212171d200ca3811ff6096eb8
 runc version: v1.1.12-0-g51d5e94
 init version: de40ad0
 Security Options:
   Profile: builtin
 Kernel Version: 5.14.21-150500.55.52-default
 Operating System: openSUSE Leap 15.5
 OSType: linux
 Architecture: x86_64
 CPUs: 8
 Total Memory: 30.79GiB
 Name: pcserver2023
 ID: 45699224-ea9c-4865-8dea-a53bb20b788c
 Docker Root Dir: /home/docker/.local/share/docker
 Debug Mode: false
 Experimental: false
 Insecure Registries:
 Live Restore Enabled: false
 Product License: Community Engine
  • Storage driver and FS-Type : overlay2 should always be used, btrfs is outdated! XFS and d_type are important!
  • CGroup Version needs to be 2 or better
  • If you see Docker complaining about Module aufs at start: do not care about - that module is obsolete

When starting Docker, an the log says:

level=warning msg="Running modprobe bridge br_netfilter failed with message: modprobe: ERROR: could not insert 'br_netfilter': Operation not permitted\ninsmod /lib/modul>
level=info msg="skipping firewalld management for rootless mode"

You first need to load the module with modprobe.

For system startup, use /etc/modules-load.d and creat e a file docker-rootless.conf in it, containing that module.

If you see docker info saying:

WARNING: bridge-nf-call-iptables is disabled
WARNING: bridge-nf-call-ip6tables is disabled

This should be fixed by:

# sudo echo "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1">> /etc/sysctl.conf
# sudo echo "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1">> /etc/sysctl.conf
# sudo modprobe br_netfilter
# sudo sysctl --system

in rootless-mode, the file to configure docker is here:


by default, the path and the file is not existent, create it new within the docker user.

For example, enable IPv6. See https://docs.docker.com/config/daemon/ipv6/ for details.

 "experimental": true,
 "ip6tables": true,
 "ipv6": true,
 "fixed-cidr-v6": "fd12:3456:789a:1::/64",
 "log-opts": {
   "max-size": "10m",
   "max-file": "5"

You need to adjust cidr to match your network, check first 4 blocks of ip addr

Notice: Don't use userns-remap - this won't work and makes no sense in rootless.

The command docker-compose has been obsoleted and been replaced by a plugin compose for docker (see https://docs.docker.com/compose/install/).

Installing it the manual way:

Edit the File ~/.bashrc and add:


Then relog to the docker user and do as the doc says to install and check you install:

docker@pcserver2023:~> mkdir -p $DOCKER_CONFIG/cli-plugins
docker@pcserver2023:~> curl -SL https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/v2.26.1/docker-compose-linux-x86_64 -o $DOCKER_CONFIG/cli-plugins/docker-compose
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
  0     0    0     0    0     0      0      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--     0
100 59.8M  100 59.8M    0     0  9951k      0  0:00:06  0:00:06 --:--:-- 11.4M
docker@pcserver2023:~> chmod +x $DOCKER_CONFIG/cli-plugins/docker-compose
docker@pcserver2023:~> docker compose version
Docker Compose version v2.26.1

Your done with the compose plugin

If you want to update your docker- installation, there is not update- process but to use the same script again:

#Upgrade docker rootless and plugin
systemctl --user stop docker
rm -f ~/bin/dockerd
curl -fsSL https://get.docker.com/rootless | sh
#need to give the new binary permissions to acces privileged network ports (beneath 1024)
sudo setcap 'cap_net_bind_service=+ep' ~/bin/rootlesskit

# If you installed docker compose, check the newest version first at https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/latest
curl -SL https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/v2.27.0/docker-compose-linux-x86_64 -o $DOCKER_CONFIG/cli-plugins/docker-compose

Now, that you have compose, you can use it to setup your services with YAML- Files. Each service should have a directory for its own.

Make a directory with mkdir ~/docker_compose and change to it.

Now - finally its time for our first running Container. As the Portainer- App is an important Management- Software in Docker for inexperienced users, let's run it in a safe userspaced way now.

As always, SSH into your docker- user and than create the folders and yml-files for docker compose and portainer.

obel1x@server:~> ssh localhost -l docker
docker@pcserver2023:~> cd ~/docker_compose
docker@pcserver2023:~/docker_compose> mkdir portainer
docker@pcserver2023:~/docker_compose> cd portainer
docker@pcserver2023:~/docker_compose> touch docker-compose.yml

Put the following into that file:

   restart: always
   image: portainer/portainer-ce
     - 9000:9000
     - 9433:9433
     - portainer_data:/data
     - /run/user/1001/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock


Check, that the Socket- Path is the correct one.

Now start your app and look the magic:

docker@pcserver2023:~/docker_compose/portainer> docker compose up -d
[+] Running 12/12
 ✔ portainer Pulled                                                                                                            17.6s
   ✔ 379538b6d68e Pull complete                                                                                                 0.5s
   ✔ 4ea3e2c3a39b Pull complete                                                                                                 0.5s
   ✔ 5171176db7f2 Pull complete                                                                                                 3.8s
   ✔ 52e9438966a5 Pull complete                                                                                                 6.5s
   ✔ 43d4775415ac Pull complete                                                                                                 6.7s
   ✔ c1cad9f5200f Pull complete                                                                                                 9.6s
   ✔ 22eab514564f Pull complete                                                                                                 7.1s
   ✔ 962b9fa821a2 Pull complete                                                                                                10.0s
   ✔ c153fefda5ce Pull complete                                                                                                10.9s
   ✔ bed990c4615b Pull complete                                                                                                10.2s
   ✔ 4f4fb700ef54 Pull complete                                                                                                10.5s
[+] Running 3/3
 ✔ Network portainer_default          Created                                                                                   0.2s
 ✔ Volume "portainer_portainer_data"  Created                                                                                   0.1s
 ✔ Container portainer-portainer-1    Started                                                                                   0.3s

Now you can go to http://localhost:9000 and pick a password to finish the setup of Portainer using the local Environment and enjoy the docker-party:

Thats all: Docker is running and serving your services, cheers!

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  • content/serverbasics/docker.txt
  • Zuletzt geändert: 2024/06/04 14:44
  • von Daniel